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This review provides information about a range of different definitions of trauma, together with theories and models of working with people who have experienced trauma; it does this to evidence the possibility of a relationally-based approach in this work.
Practitioner psychologists are engaged in understanding the biological/neuropsychological, cognitive and interpersonal/relational aspects of human functioning, so there are a number of different strands running through the review.
The document proposes, through the use of case material and relevant literature, that more consideration can be given to a relational emphasis in both research and practice. This will further inform trauma work alongside more technical interventions for all applied psychologists.
- The counselling psychology stance
- The importance of relationship
- A generic approach
- An integration of relational and technical interventions
- Problematising the concept of trauma
A note on terminology
Guideline: Problems and possibilities
Definitions of trauma
- Complex trauma
- An idiothetic approach to understanding PTSD
Contributions from other theoretical models
Eye movement densensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR): Using this technique relationally
Neurological aspects of trauma and intrusions: Contributing to the relational focus
- Intrusions: the dominant feature found in trauma responses
- Understanding traumatic intrusions using neurological insights
- Verbally accessible memory and situationally accessible memory systems
- Sensation based memory and contextually bound memory
Peri-traumatic distress during trauma
- Cognitive restructuring
Applying the research in practice
A relational approach to working with trauma responses: Returning to this theme
- Trauma, rupture and working relationally
Concluding remarks: Finding a position in this debate